April 30, 2004

Day 25

Ten years ago today: Almost 500 Tutsi who were hiding at Ngoma church in Butare prefecture, who just a few days earlier had been informed that the killing sprees were over, were attacked by a group of civilians armed with nail-studded clubs (called masu), led by a few militiamen. According to Human Rights Watch, many of these people were killed in the period of an hour, including 300 children, some of whom had survived previous massacres elsewhere.

It rained in the late morning, but when the rain ended in the early afternoon, killers came to finish off the wounded children who were still alive, lying on the grass. As they were clubbing them to death, a vehicle belonging to the Ministry of Health appeared and several officials got out. The killers chatted with them while continuing to club the children on the ground.

At Benebekira convent in Butare on this day, 25 Tutsi children, who had seen their parents murdered earlier, were lured from their hiding places after being promised cake, then were driven to a forest and killed.

President Clinton spoke about Rwanda in a one-minute radio address:

The pain and suffering of the Rwandan people have touched the hearts of all Americans. It is time for the leaders of Rwanda to recognize their common bond of humanity and to reject the senseless and criminal violence that continues to plague their country.

The United Nations debated the Rwanda question all day, then passed a resolution that condemned the killing but failed to use the word "genocide," which would have obligated them to take action.

The RPF released a statement on this day:

The time for UN intervention is long past. The genocide is almost completed. Most of the potential victims of the regime have either been killed or have since fled.

Ramu Munyurabuhizi, a Hutu refugee among the thousands in Tanzania, on this day told the New York Times,

We fled the RPF. They are killing people. We hardly saw any Rwandan military on the road. They all left before us. I had to leave everything behind. I do not know where my family is. All my commune left. We were about 30,000 people.

On this day, Rep. Pat Schroeder commented in the Los Angeles Times,

There are some groups terribly concerned about the gorillas. But -- it sounds terrible -- people just don't know what can be done about the people.

This week:

Congo army troops fight with Rwandan Hutu rebels near Goma.

The Rwandan government protests that the International Criminal Tribunal is not handing over convicted genocidaires fast enough.

Has the genocide in Rwanda been oversimplified?

Posted by NYCO at 04:02 AM | Comments (2)

April 29, 2004

Day 24

Ten years ago today: RTLM radio announced that May 5 was the target date for the final "cleanup" of any Tutsi still alive in Kigali.

During the genocide, RTLM and the Hutu extremist newspaper Kangura continued to denounce Tutsi and moderate Hutu political figures and help militia and citizens track them down. Before the genocide, Kangura had published the Hutu Ten Commandments and numerous anti-Tutsi political cartoons.

On this day, Rwandan journalist Anastase Seruvumba, of the opposition paper Imbaga, was killed. Seruvumba was one of the last opposition journalists in the country to die. Most of the others killed died in Kigali during the first few days of the genocide.

In Cyangugu prefecture on this day, a group of Interahamwe finished killing 4,000 Tutsi at Shangi parish. The Tutsi had tried to defend themselves by throwing stones at their attackers.

Tutsi also died in large numbers at the village of Gatete in Byumba prefecture.

Members of Rwanda's Unification Church died on this day at their church in Kigali.

In northern Rwanda, the RPF sealed the border to Tanzania, cutting off the flow of both Hutu and Tutsi refugees.

On this day, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Prudence Bushnell called Theoneste Bagosora, one of the masterminds of the genocide, and told him to stop the violence.

UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali asked the Security Council to reconsider its decision to withdraw UN peacekeepers.

This week:

Sweden has agreed to allow convicted Rwandan genocidaires to serve prison terms in Swedish jails.

Why won't the media cover mass deaths in Africa?

Posted by NYCO at 07:07 AM | Comments (0)

April 28, 2004

Day 23

Ten years ago today: An estimated 175,000 Hutu, fearing violence against them by RPF soldiers advancing through Rwanda's north, crossed into Tanzania in one 24-hour period, in one of swiftest and most massive refugee movements of the 20th century. The refugees crossed into Tanzania at the town of Rusomo. About 14,000 Hutu refugees also had fled in the opposite direction to Goma in Zaire.

In southern Cyangugu prefecture, Tutsi who had fled Kamparaka Stadium trying cross from Cyangugu to Zaire were confronted by Cyangugu's prefect, Emmanuel Bagambiki, and by Interahamwe who fired on the group, killing many.

About 50,000 Tutsi from Cyangugu died during the genocide.

In the Kigali neighborhood of Agakingiro on this day, Interahamwe conducted house-to-house searches for Tutsi and moderate Hutu, demanding identity cards and removing people to a local garage, where they were executed.

Human Rights Watch reports that in Cyahinda, scene of massacres earlier in the month, Rwandan officials met on this day and ordered local citizens to perform umuganda, or required community labor, to clean up the scores of dead bodies, "since the refugees who stayed at Cyahinda had left behind a lot of filth." This forced labor was very unpopular among the citizens.

On this day, the International Red Cross called on all governments and members of the UN Security Council to take extraordinary measures to end the "systematic carnage" and "extermination." Philippe Gaillard, head of Red Cross operations in Rwanda, later commented on the situation.

On this day, U.S. State Department spokeswoman Christine Shelley was asked at a press briefing whether what was happening in Rwanda was genocide.

As I think you know, the use of the term "genocide" has a very precise legal meaning although it's not strictly a legal determination. There are other factors in there as well. In looking at a situation, to make a determination about that, before we begin to use that term, we have to know as much as possible about the facts of the situation, particularly about the intentions of those who are committing the crimes before we could actually make that determination.

This week:

Rwanda's recently redesigned flag is mentioned in this Guardian story on the proposed new Iraqi flag, and the significance of flag design.

The U.S. State Department says eternal vigilance is necessary to prevent future Rwandas.

A photo album of Cyangugu.

Posted by NYCO at 06:57 AM | Comments (1)

April 27, 2004

Day 22

Ten years ago today: Facing international pressure over the reports of mass killings, local Rwandan officials continued to hold meetings designed to enforce order, and to lure Tutsi out of hiding. Human Rights Watch reports that on this day, such an announcement was made at a meeting next to Ngoma church in Butare prefecture, where many Tutsi had sought refuge:

At the church were nearly 500 people who had escaped from the massacre at the Matyazo health center a few days before or who had been forced to flee when their homes had been attacked. The great majority were children whose parents had been killed or who had fled, leaving them behind. From inside the church, the priests and the displaced listened with growing hope to the prefect and the burgomaster as they delivered the pacification message.

HRW also notes that by this day, lawlessness by Hutu (who had fewer Tutsi left to kill) against other Hutu had become enough of a problem for the government to urge local officials to combat "violence and disorder."

On this day, Tutsi were massacred at the communal offices of Muyaga in Butare prefecture. It was later estimated that about 5,000 people died there. The estimated dead across the country by this date: 160,000.

Pope John Paul II used the word "genocide" on this day in calling for an end to the war.

This week:

Battles between the Congolese army and Rwandan Hutu rebels in southern Congo have left many dead.

Survivor accounts of ethnic cleansing in Sudan's Darfur region.

A five-part radio series by WBBM on life after genocide in Rwanda.

There's trouble at Butare University.

Posted by NYCO at 03:57 AM | Comments (1)

April 26, 2004

Day 21

Ten years ago today: According to Human Rights Watch, a new plan to expand and control the "citizen militia" (i.e., Hutus who had volunteered to kill their countrymen) was announced on Radio Rwanda by the interim Rwandan government. Citizens were told they would be asked to join patrols and man roadblocks. One Rwandan later said,

The young men... were organized into a group. They used the greeting “PAWA!” [meaning "Hutu Power"] and you had to respond “PAWA” so they would know you were not an enemy. It was these groups who manned the barricades. When two PAWA patrols would meet, they would shout “PAWA!” to each other, so you would sometimes hear that.

Tutsi hiding in the town of Butare on this day heard a message delivered by a car with a loudspeaker.

The market is open. No one will kill you. Peace has been established.

On this day, a fax was sent from the Hotel des Milles Collines to the relief agency Oxfam:

In Kigali the killers are looking for those who are hiding and killing them. Yesterday they killed 70 at Nyaminambo (children, old people, pregnant women). No one, especially Tutsi, has been spared... There are 500 of us in the hotel. There are six soldiers guarding us but several attempts have been made to kill us. Do something very soon.

By this day, over 7,500 Rwandan refugees had reached Burundi, and a total of 137,000 were estimated to have fled the country to both the north and the south.

South Africa conducted its first free elections on this day.

On this night, fighting between RPF and Rwandan military forces erupted again in Kigali after brief lull.

This week:

The UN says that Rwanda has violated its peace agreement by sending troops back into the Congo.

A Boston nun would like to build a school for girls in Nyamata, scene of one of the worst massacres.

Newsweek reports on the ethnic cleansing situation in Darfur, Sudan.

Rwanda Alive is an educational project bringing videoconferences from Rwanda into high schools; read the diaries of their current ongoing trip to Rwanda.


Posted by NYCO at 02:52 AM | Comments (1)

April 25, 2004

Day 20

Ten years ago today: At a convent in Sovu, two Hutu nuns, Sister Gertrude Mukangango and Sister Julienne Kizito, handed over to armed men 30 Tutsi convent employees and their families.

For a variety of reasons, women were perpetrators of violence as well as victims in the Rwandan genocide.

A Red Cross official in Butare spoke to Radio France Internationale:

There is absolutely no law functioning here any longer. The watchword is the elimination of those who are considered enemies and no one is spared: children, wives, babies, all those close to the enemy... Houses are searched, one after the other. Everyone which is different from the majority ethnic group is taken out. If there is any doubt, there is no discussion: one kills, one butchers. This is intolerable, I mean, this is slaughter, and international organizations, namely MSF and the ICRC, have withdrawn. One has the impression that people are forgetting. Things are left to happen, there is no reaction, just because it is a point, a small point in Africa. It is not something which has the effect of proximity, like Gorazde for example, which gets a lot of publicity. It may be bombed, but the tragedy here is more appalling, I am convinced of that.

British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd responded to opposition MPs' condemnation of the UN decision to reduce UNAMIR forces:

I am not sure how either of you suppose that maintaining a UN force at the original scale is going to help assuage these horrors. I assure you there is no magic in keeping troops there, if there is not something useful which they can do.

Time and Newsweek both featured stories on Rwanda this week. By this day, 144,000 people had been killed there.

Human Rights Watch reports that in Butare prefecture on this day, a commission was established to make a tally of the property that had been "abandoned by their owners," the missing Tutsi.

HRW also reports that on this day, Mil-Tec, a shadowy firm based in the UK, delivered one of five arms shipments to the Hutu Rwandan government which would total $5.5 million. According to NISAT, Mil-Tec was just one of many arms dealers who supplied weapons to Rwanda during the genocide.

On this day, a fisherman on the Kagera River (which flows northward from Rwanda through Tanzania) first reported seeing Rwandan bodies in the water. They were floating down the river toward Lake Victoria in Uganda.

This week:

Rwandan troops briefly crossed the Burundi border on Thursday to chase Hutu rebels, including former Interahamwe members.

An interview with Clea Koff, forensic investigator in Rwanda and at other scenes of genocide.

A major East African football tournament, the Kagame Cup, gets underway today in Kigali.

Posted by NYCO at 02:34 AM | Comments (2)

April 24, 2004

Day 19

Ten years ago today: Peace talks between the RPF and the Rwandan interim government were planned for this day in Tanzania, but did not materialize.

Human Rights Watch reports that on this day, Rwandan military and Interahamwe leaders met to decide on changes in how detentions and executions should be carried out. Outright killing at roadblocks would be discouraged and Red Cross vehicles would be allowed to pass without trouble, to avoid embarrassing international attention.

Violence nevertheless continued in and around church compounds this weekend, including at Cyanika in Gikorongo prefecture, where perhaps as many as 7,000 people died. The Cyanika parish priest, Joseph Niyamugabo, who had unsuccessfully asked for protection from his superiors, was killed on this day.

Doctors Without Borders (MSF) pulled their staff out of southern Rwanda on this day after the murders of about 170 Tutsi patients at Butare's university hospital. The head of MSF operations was interviewed on this evening on CNN by phone about the hospital massacre.

The New York Times ran a front-page story about Rwandan refugees in Burundi. A Belgian nurse was quoted about the effects of the machete.

[They have] very specific wounds. I have never seen anything like this. They are very, very deep to the back of the neck. You wouldn't believe it. These people walked. They walked! They are so resistant against pain, it's incredible. How in God's name is it possible to survive this?

This man did not survive his machete wounds.

This week:

Listen to a WBUR report on The Women of Rwanda.

Former UN peacekeeper Jake Blake remembers serving in Rwanda.

Negotiations are underway for the return of Rwandan refugees in Namibia.

A speech by Paul Kagame in Seattle. Kagame seeks American corporate support for Rwanda's AIDS battle.

Is the Rwandan genocide meeting with revisionist denial? Or could it happen again to Rwanda?

Today is the Day of Remembrance for the Armenian genocide, which began on April 24, 1915.

Posted by NYCO at 03:13 AM | Comments (1)

April 23, 2004

Day 18

Ten years ago today: Paul Rusesabagina, manager of the Hotel des Mille Collines in Kigali, was given an ultimatum by a member of the Rwandan military to surrender the hundreds of Tutsi and moderate Hutu who he had been sheltering at the hotel since the start of the genocide on April 7. Rusesabagina stalled, using the hotel's one working phone line to make calls to influential people outside of the country, including the French Foreign Ministry. Within a half hour, the planned "liquidation" of the hotel was called off.

This day's issue of the CIA's classified National Intelligence Daily publication, delivered daily to Washington policymakers, referred to "genocide" in its item on Rwanda and noted that it was spreading through the country.

On this day, authorities in Butare began driving around town with megaphones, announcing that the killing was finished, and telling people to bury the dead in order to hide them from journalists in helicopters, that hospitals and markets were open for business as usual, and that people should come out of hiding.

Human Rights Watch reports that on this day, Kisasa Lukasa and his wife, who were from Zaire, were traveling through Rwanda and stopped at a market in the town of Butare. When Mr. Lukasa left his wife in the car to make a purchase, Rwandan militia passing by spotted her and demanded to see her identity papers. She was unable to produce them, and was immediately killed on suspicion of being Tutsi.

This week:

The story of the Hotel des Milles Collines is being dramatized in Hotel Rwanda, a new film starring Don Cheadle to be released this fall.

Other films about the Rwandan genocide are being made, including one based on the novel A Sunday at the Pool in Kigali.

Paul Rusesabagina, who now works in Belgium, turned down an invitation to return to Rwanda to receive an award for his heroism.

An article on tourism in today's Rwanda.

This 1986 Vanity Fair account of Dian Fossey's work and life in Rwanda before her death is worth reading.

Posted by NYCO at 03:55 AM | Comments (0)

April 22, 2004

Day 17

Ten years ago today: The Guardian interviewed Philippe Gaillard of the Red Cross about the situation on the ground in Kigali.

If we took our wounded out of the compound we would probably not make it further than two or three hundred meters. We [the Red Cross] are just about safe driving in our Landcruisers as long as we have no wounded in the back.

A Red Cross convoy bound for Rwanda with 500 tons of medical supplies and food was stuck waiting behind the Tanzanian border for clearance from local officials. The RPF army had captured the major Rwandan road to Tanzania by this day.

On Canadian radio, UNAMIR Gen. Romeo Dallaire commented on the withdrawal of most of the UN troops, leaving him with 450 men:

I hope with all my heart that we don't pack up and leave but, in the same light, I don't think that I can keep my troops under the conditions that they are working under, both due to the live firing, due to the circumstances of the atmosphere of terror that is going around, but also under the hygiene and living conditions in which they are finding themselves, sharing with thousands and thousands of refugees. So, before I start losing soldiers to indiscriminate or indirect fire, I might as well move those that I absolutely don't need and concentrate, with the ones that are here, on the aim of the exercise, which is try to get those guys together and set up, as much as we can, the base for the humanitarian assistance.

Human Rights Watch reports that on this day, various dignitaries of the Hutu government of Rwanda were dispatched to other African countries and Europe to "explain the government position on the Rwandan crisis" and minimize the magnitude of the reported deaths. Meanwhile, Rwanda's ambassador to Zaire claimed that Belgian UNAMIR soldiers were the ones who had shot down President Habyarimana's plane.

The White House this day issued a statement urging the RPF and Rwandan government to "stop the violence." Monique Mujawamariya, a human rights activist who had managed to escape to America, met with National Security Advisor Anthony Lake on this day.

HRW reports that in Butare prefecture, the attacks on untouched areas previously scheduled earlier in the week took place as planned. At the hospital at the National University in Butare, 40 Tutsi patients were killed on this evening as Doctors Without Borders staff were forced to look on. One attacker said,

The hospital stinks with Tutsi and we must clean it up.

About 112,000 Rwandans had been murdered by this day.

This week:

One of former Rwandan president Pasteur Bizimungu's defense lawyers was jailed for contempt of court. The trial has been stopped for at least 48 hours.

Rwanda's head of military intelligence, Jack Nziza, has been fired for his efforts to suppress journalists. The New Times of Rwanda has an editorial (second item).

American RadioWorks' report on Rwanda: The Few Who Stayed.

The National Ballet of Rwanda has 100 members.

Posted by NYCO at 03:40 AM | Comments (0)

April 21, 2004

Day 16

Ten years ago today: The United Nations voted to withdraw 90% of the UNAMIR forces in Rwanda. Madeline Albright recalls the debate.

250 Bangladeshi UN troops were evacuated from embattled Kigali immediately. The Glasgow Herald reported,

Shouting at each other and mumbling prayers, they squashed into planes loaded with dozens of UN military observers and refugees. Many, murmuring verses from the Koran, had to stand.

The National Security Archive contains U.S. State Department documents relating to the U.S. response to the Rwandan crisis during this time.

On this day Radio Muhabura, the voice of the RPF, urged Rwandan soldiers in besieged Kigali to surrender:

The question now is why soldiers continue to die protecting the clique of killers. They should see the truth and instead fight the killers who are determined to exterminate the whole country.

On this day at the Groupe Scolaire in Butare, a group of 600 children were separated by ethnicity by militiamen, and those who were Tutsi were slaughtered. Children were targeted in the genocide as they never had been in past Rwandan ethnic violence. Children and teens were also recruited as guards and killers, and as soldiers for the RPF.

An attack on thousands of Tutsi at Murambi Technical School in Gikorongo began on this day.

Radio Burundi reported on this day that at least 6,000 Rwandans had made it across the Burundi border and were choking the roads.

Callixte Ndagijimana, burgomaster of Mugina in Gitarama prefecture, organized people in his commune against violence and welcomed refugees, remaining with Tutsis after Interahamwe came to his area and ordered Hutu and Tutsi to separate. He was killed on this day by Hutu extremists. A survivor said,

Callixte died without even leaving a child to carry on his memory. He was so brave. I don't think there was anyone else in the whole of Gitarama prefecture who could have done what he did. He gave his life for us. We can only ask the government to put his name among the ranks of our national heroes because he died for love of his fellow citizens and for his country.

Ndagijimana and other Hutu who risked or gave their lives are remembered in the book Rwanda: Tribute to Courage.

This week:

Children of Rwanda's Genocide - a photo report on orphans, street kids, and prisoners.

Witnesses recant testimony at the ongoing trial of former Rwandan president Pasteur Bizimungu, causing an uproar.

Rwanda announces changes to the gacaca court system.

Another editorial examining Richard Clarke's role in U.S. decisions ten years ago this week.

A look at efforts to preserve what's left at Murambi.

A list of top 10 Rwanda books for further reading.

Posted by NYCO at 04:01 AM | Comments (0)

April 20, 2004

Day 15

Ten years ago today: The Tutsi in the hills near Cyahinda church, who were unable to set out for the Burundi border, were attacked by Interahamwe at Gasasa hill.

They surrounded the hill, taunting us, watching us. They formed a circle around the hill, then they sat down... Then a person blew a whistle, and they all came together and they began climbing the hill toward us. I saw them climbing. I saw them coming and I heard three guns behind me. There were also shots coming from the right side. And I saw the burgomaster’s truck in front, but the burgomaster was behind us, up on top of the hill with a hand-held loudspeaker.

Investigators from Human Rights Watch who arrived at the scene later found

a child’s red sweater and... the little rib cage intact inside it. Past the last destroyed house, on the flat hilltop, there was only tall grass littered with the remains of the people who had sought safety there: a broken rosary, a school notebook with an agriculture lesson in fine penmanship, women’s underwear, wooden vessels for holding milk. There were large mass graves on top of the hill but they did not contain all the bones. Scattered about were ribs, vertebrae, shoulder blades.

On this day, "security meetings" were held in Butare prefecture, where attacks on Tutsi in previously untouched villages were scheduled by local officials for later in the week.

The UN discussed Rwanda for eight hours on this day and released special report mentioning the "torrent of widespread killings" that could be resulting in "possibly tens of thousands of deaths." They did not use the word "genocide."

This week:

The "Butare trial" at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda continues this week with an account of what happened in the region after the "security meetings."

The "Military I" trial at the ICTR also continues this week as evidence against the alleged Rwandan army masterminds of the genocide is being heard. The trial is now entering its third year.

Voice of America reports on the current political climate in Rwanda and charges that leaders are engaging in a process of "Tutsification" of the government.

Posted by NYCO at 04:12 AM | Comments (0)

April 19, 2004

Day 14

Ten years ago today: A high-level meeting of officials of the new Rwandan government took place in Butare. Interim President Théodore Sindikubwabo, a former pediatrician, exhorted local officials to concentrate on having their people kill the Tutsi, not on stealing their property.

People who only watch, those who feel it’s not their business, should be exposed. Let them step aside for us and let us work, and let them look from outside our circle. He who says “That’s not my business and I’m even afraid,” let him step aside for us. Those who are responsible of getting rid of such a person, let them do it fast. Other good workers who want to work for their country are there... We are living through extraordinary times. Jokes, laughing, taking things lightly, indifference, all must for the time being give way to work.

The killings at Cyahinda church in Butare were finally finished on this evening. Tutsi who had escaped to the hills, and had watched the slaughter happen at Cyahinda from afar, realized they were next, and left in groups to try to flee to Burundi.

Human Rights Watch reports that on this day a group of doctors from Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) traveling near the Burundi border saw Tutsi refugees who were being pursued.

[We] tried to get past this group of people—and the people were trying to get into the car. They were crying for help, “Take us in!” But we had raised the window glass and the doors were locked. We could not take anybody in. We [passed] them and we reached the border. But at the border there was another group of militia that was waiting. All these civilians, sixty to eighty of them were pursued and hacked to death. There were six, perhaps ten, that managed to cross the bridge between Rwanda and Burundi with their wounds.

Human Rights Watch on this day estimated the total dead to be 100,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutu, and called it genocide.

Samantha Power writes:

Susan Rice, a rising star on the NSC who worked under Richard Clarke, stunned a few of the officials present when she asked, "If we use the word 'genocide' and are seen as doing nothing, what will be the effect on the November [congressional] election?"

This week:

Scottish aid worker Lesley Bilinda has returned to Rwanda ten years after her Tutsi husband was killed.

Justice in Rwanda: 10 Years Later looks at Rwanda's prison system and gacaca courts.

A leisurely jaunt around the Rwandan countryside.

Posted by NYCO at 02:25 AM | Comments (0)

April 18, 2004

Day 13

Ten years ago today: Higiro Viateur, burgomaster of Musebeya in central Rwanda who had previously sought to keep order, prevented another attack on Tutsi gathered there. He sent them away to seek shelter at the church in Kaduha, which would later be the scene of a major massacre.

Over 3,000 Tutsi who had taken refuge at Gatwaro Stadium in Kibuye prefecture were massacred starting on this day.

In the southern prefecture of Butare, killing at Cyahinda church continued on this day from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. At the Simbi church and health center, where at least 3,000 Tutsi were taking shelter, militia arrived at 9 a.m. A Hutu priest who had stayed behind was baptizing people there in preparation for their deaths when the first grenade was thrown into the church.

In Nyaruhengari (in Butare) on this day, Hutu locals were first incited to start attacking their Tutsi neighbors at Kansi church, as reported by Human Rights Watch:

Retired soldiers or military men in civilian dress came to goad Hutu into attacking Tutsi at the barrier near the church. At first the Hutu hesitated, but then they began to throw stones at the Tutsi, who threw stones back. That night, armed men attacked the church complex and killed some Tutsi.

Joseph Kanyabashi, mayor of Ngoma in Butare prefecture, on this day held a meeting during which he announced there would be no more killings of Tutsi in the area. Tutsi who emerged out of hiding were killed.

In British and American newspapers on this day, the only report of violence against civilians was a sketchy Reuters account of the ongoing fighting between Rwandan soldiers and RPF rebels in the capital, Kigali:

"It's like the mayhem has gathered pace," a man said by telephone from Kigali. "There are massacres everywhere. The army's delight is to murder civilians, while civilians turn on each other in ethnic revenge... Sometimes people pleaded for their lives for 20 to 30 minutes, then the soldiers just shot them dead," he said. "Women are in trouble, they are raped first, then killed."

After the first two weeks of the genocide, more than half of the Tutsi in Butare prefecture were dead.

This week: The trial of Joseph Kanyabashi and other officials of Butare prefecture, on charges of conspiring to commit genocide and other crimes against humanity, is continuing at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.

Chicago's WBEZ aired a report from Interworld Radio, Rwanda: Unsung Heroes of the Genocide. (RealAudio link)

NPR aired a segment on Rwanda's effort to create a national genocide memorial.

Posted by NYCO at 03:19 AM | Comments (0)

April 17, 2004

Day 12

Ten years ago today: UNAMIR Gen. Romeo Dallaire sent a cable to UN Peacekeeping Operations in New York, asking for a change in UNAMIR's mandate permitting him to intervene in saving civilians from the killings that were spiraling out of control. Dallaire reported that the morale of the remaining UN troops was slipping.

Militia arrived at Cyahinda church in Butare prefecture at 7 a.m. for a second day of killing. Their "work" was stopped in the afternoon when Jean-Baptiste Habyalimana, prefect of Butare and the only Tutsi prefect in Rwanda, arrived to restore order. Habyalimana had been working to keep Tutsi safe in Butare. A witness said,

He came and spoke to the crowd. He announced that he would bring troops to defend the Tutsi and that he would bring food....The killing died down for a little while just after his visit. But very soon after, it started again.

Later on this day, the national radio announced Habyalimana was being removed from his post.

On this day, Rwanda's Catholic bishops called for end to the bloodshed.

At Kibuye Catholic church, Tutsi who were gathered seeking protection were attacked by Hutu militia. Madalena Mukariemeria was there.

The killer was a very big man. He had this huge club full of nails and sharp pieces of metal. He was such an expert he could kill with just one blow to the head. I wanted this man to kill me. People had been dying in such terrible ways and he would do it quickly.

Over 11,000 people died at Kibuye.

29 years ago today:

The Khmer Rouge entered Phnom Penh on April 17, 1975, and embarked on their campaign of genocide against the Cambodian people.

This week: Rwandan rebels based in the Congo are suspected to be preparing to launch attacks on Rwanda.

Rwandan women are successful in politics.

A tour of the road from Butare to Kigali.

A virtual tour of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha, Tanzania.

Posted by NYCO at 05:56 AM | Comments (0)

April 16, 2004

Day 11

Ten years ago today: Refugees, including their Tutsi pastors, were killed at Mugonero's Seventh-Day Adventist Church and hospital in an attack lasting eleven hours. A survivor said:

My 3-year-old son begged them not to kill him, begging their pardon for being Tutsi and saying that he would no longer be Tutsi.

Rev. Elizaphan Ntakirutimana, who had received a letter from the Tutsi pastors the day before, refused to protect his fellow Adventists. He later fled to America.

On this day, the massacre at Nyange's Catholic church was concluded when the church was ordered bulldozed with up to 2,500 dead or dying Tutsi refugees still inside. The order was allegedly given by the church's priest, Athanase Seromba, who later fled to Italy under an assumed name.

A list of some of the Catholic priests who died during the Rwandan civil war and genocide.

In southwestern Rwanda, Hutu militia began an attack on Cyahinda's church and school complex, where thousands of Tutsi from all over the southern part of the country had been directed to seek safety by the authorities. Some initially fought back, but were overwhelmed. Most were kept from escaping by guards. The killers at Cyahinda "worked" from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. every day.

About 72,000 people had died by this day.

Turatsembatsemba abatutsi means "We will exterminate the Tutsi."

This week:

From the Holocaust to Rwanda, a website promoting Holocaust Memorial Day.

A year-by-year timeline of Rwandan and East African history.

Survivors of Hutu-Tutsi ethnic violence in Burundi also remember.

A look at differences between rich and poor in current-day Rwanda.

A Time for Cleansing is a radio play set in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide. You can listen to the play at the BBC.

Posted by NYCO at 03:59 AM | Comments (2)

April 15, 2004

Day 10

Ten years ago today: The UN Security Council began to debate what to do about Rwanda.

The U.S. State Department forwarded talking points to the U.S. delegation at the UN:

The international community must give highest priority to full, orderly withdrawal of all UNAMIR personnel as soon as possible... We will oppose any effort at this time to preserve a UNAMIR presence in Rwanda.

On this day, the New York Times published a story on Western disinterest in what was going on.

Tutsi people had now gathered in the thousands to seek refuge in and around churches throughout Rwanda. Today, there were massacres at the churches in Ntarama, Nyange, and Nyarubuye in the eastern part of the country. Killings at Nyamata church also continued today.

Frontline featured a survivor of Nyarubuye in their special Valentina's Nightmare, with interviews by journalists who arrived at the scene weeks later.

A Hutu attacker remembers Nyarubuye.

Hutu shopkeeper Paul Kamanzi of Mukazi commune in Kibongo prefecture, who became estranged from his friends and family because he did not support the genocide, chose to stay with Tutsi refugees instead. On this day, Paul died at the Mukazi commune office along with a group of Tutsi who were attacked there by Interahamwe.

By this day, 64,000 people are estimated to have died in the genocide.

A group of Tutsi pastors at Mugonero on this day wrote a letter to the local church leader asking for his help.

Our dear leader, Pastor Elizaphan Ntakirutimana: How are you? We wish you to be strong in all these problems we are facing. We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families. We therefore request you to intervene on our behalf and talk with the Mayor. We believe that, with the help of God who entrusted you the leadership of this flock, which is going to be destroyed, your intervention will be highly appreciated, the same way as the Jews were saved by Esther.

This week:

Praise and criticism of the government of Rwandan president Paul Kagame.

Tacitus visited Rwanda this past December and observed Rwandan society nearly ten years after the genocide.

Nyange is the hometown of Felicien Kabuga, owner of RTLM and allegedly the importer of machetes and other weapons for the anti-Tutsi militia, who is still on the run today.

Posted by NYCO at 04:04 AM | Comments (0)

April 14, 2004

Day 9

Ten years ago today: Interahamwe stopped a Rwandan Red Cross ambulance at a checkpoint and killed six wounded Tutsi who were on the way to the hospital. RTLM announced that the Red Cross was protecting "enemies of the Republic, disguised as wounded." The incident prompted Philippe Gaillard, head of the international Red Cross mission in Rwanda, to alert the world media about the targeting of wounded civilians.

Belgium announced its troops were leaving the country.

In Kibeho church in Gikorongo prefecture, thousands of Tutsi refugees died in an attack. Kibeho had been the site of apparitions to Catholic girls during the 1980s.

Thousands of people were also killed at Nyamata church in central Rwanda this week, starting today. Leopoldo Twagirayezu, who was with the Interahamwe in Nyamata this week, believes he's been forgiven.

We were told the president had been killed by the cockroaches. They said, 'The cockroaches are the Tutsis among you and are hiding in nearby bushes. So chase them down and kill them, or they will enslave and kill the Hutus.' . . . All the authorities said the same thing, so I thought it must be true... We were singing, crying and shouting with joy. The body count made us happy. Some used pestles, but I preferred a machete — swing for the Achilles' tendons first, the upraised arms next, the head last. Out of the 3,000 people who were inside the church, maybe five got away. It took us six and a half hours and we were thorough and systematic. We had one aim and we accomplished it. I was proud. We got beer to drink and food to eat, even beef. . . . I was transformed. I was happy.

Claudette Mukarumanzi escaped from the church compound on this day.

Nyamata means "the place of milk."

On this day in Nyamata, Marcellin Kwibuka was given a choice.

Iyo uza kwimenya, nanje ukamenya Ntuba waranyise?

This week:

Survivors of Rwanda's church massacres struggle with their faith.

Rwandan high school students talk to U.S. students.

Ibuka is an organization for Rwandan genocide survivors.

Posted by NYCO at 02:03 AM | Comments (0)

April 13, 2004

Day 8

Ten years ago today: Fierce fighting between RPF forces and Rwandan military erupted in Kigali.

RTLM announcer Valerie Bemeriki warned listeners across the nation that RPF rebels were disguised as "ordinary Tutsi" and said,

People have to look at who is next to them, look to see if they are not plotting against them. Because those plotters are the worst. The people must rise up, so that the plotters will be exposed, it is not hard to see if someone is plotting against you.

The mayor of Bicumbi, Laurent Semanza, made a speech on this day promoting the rape of Tutsi women.

On this day, Jean-Baptiste Gatate, mayor of the town of Murambi in eastern Rwanda, addressed Interahamwe members and ordered them to start killing all Tutsis and also Hutu who did not belong to the hardline Hutu party. Mr. Karemera, a farmer, killed his three Tutsi friends with a club.

Acting President Théodore Sindikubwabo announced in a speech that the "troubles and killings" had ended with the installation of the new Hutu government, which fled to Gikarama to escape the fighting in Kigali.

By this day, large-scale massacres of Tutsi had occurred in eight out of Rwanda's ten prefectures.

In Butare prefecture in southern Rwanda, immigration officials were told to seal the border to Burundi. Later in the night, Tutsi who attempted to cross the Akanyaru River into Burundi at Nyakizu were hunted down and their bodies thrown into the water.

This week: Denver businessman John Dick is hosting a visit to Denver this week by Rwandan president Paul Kagame.

Rwanda wants the UN to disarm Hutu rebels in the Congo.

Confessed Hutu génocidaires play a game of football with Tutsi survivors in front of a crowd of 4,000 at Gashora, Rwanda.

A Ugandan visitor to Kigali during the genocide tells his story.

An opinion piece on Rwanda and revisionist history.

Posted by NYCO at 05:27 AM | Comments (0)

April 12, 2004

Day 7

Ten years ago today: Jean de Dieu Kamuhanda, a member of the new Hutu government of Rwanda and later the country's minister of higher education, accompanied a carload of armed militia to the Protestant church and school at Gikomero in central Rwanda, where Tutsi were seeking refuge. Several thousand Tutsi were then fired upon with guns and grenades for about a half hour.

The Guardian's Mark Huband filed a report on the UN's evacuation work:

A few yards from the French troops, a Rwandan woman was being hauled along the road by a young man with a machete. He pulled at her clothes as she looked at the foreign soldiers in the desperate, terrified hope that they could save her from her death. But none of the troops moved. "It's not our mandate," said one, leaning against his jeep as he watched the condemned woman, the driving rain splashing at his blue United Nations badge.

This evening at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., Madeline Albright delivered an address on the War Crimes Tribunal for Yugoslavia, and issues of genocide and international response.

How do we respond when the authority and resources of a state are directed toward the destruction of whole categories of human beings? How is it possible for so many people--capable of generosity and warmth in other contexts--to descend to the level of beasts? How can civilization not respond to crimes of this magnitude and still call itself "civilized?"

In his book, Shake Hands with the Devil, UNAMIR Gen. Romeo Dallaire writes,

I mark April 12 as the day the world moved from disinterest in Rwanda to the abandonment of Rwandans to their fate. The swift evacuation of foreign nationals (en masse from Rwanda in a sweeping military exercise) was the signal for the génocidaires to move toward the apocalypse.

This week: Romeo Dallaire calls for reparations to Rwanda from Western nations.

Rwanda's prime minister Bernard Makuza complains to BBC about their interviews with convicted génocidaires.

One of the top Hutu rebel leaders operating of out the Congo, Evariste Murenzi, has surrendered and returned to Rwanda.

Rwandan expatriate Alexandre Kimenyi, founder of the Tutsi-led opposition party Amaharo People's Congress, is waiting for Rwanda to gain democratic traditions.

Are there warning signs of genocide in the making in the Sudan and Ethiopia?

Posted by NYCO at 02:02 AM | Comments (0)

April 11, 2004

Day 6

Ten years ago today: Belgian soldiers who had been guarding about 2,500 Tutsi at the Ecole Technique Officielle in Kicukiro, near Kigali, were ordered to make for the airport to complete the evacuation of European civilians. Some of the Tutsi at the school ran after the departing Belgian convoy, pleading not to be left behind. Interahamwe and Rwandan military forces, who were waiting for the Belgians to leave, then entered the school grounds with machine guns and grenades and killed most of the people gathered there.

Karasira Venuste was there.

In Cyangugu, Msgr. Thaddée Ntihinyurwa, who the previous day had preached against violence, on this day was attempting to escort Tutsi religious brothers through a roadblock, where their identity cards were checked. Ntihinyurwa was threatened with a machete by a 7-year-old boy, and three of his Tutsi companions were killed in front of him.

Talking points on Rwanda for a dinner this evening between Frank Wisner (third-ranking official at the Pentagon) and Henry Kissinger.

Karamera lost 16 friends and family on this day.

My little brother was still alive but he bled to death in my arms and there was nothing that I could do, except tell him that I love him.

32,000 Rwandans had died by the end of today.

This week:

Rwanda's government has strictly outlawed identity cards and other labels of ethnicity.

Lindsey Hilsum writes on AIDS assistance for Rwandan rape victims.

An opinion piece on Richard Clarke and Rwanda.

Rwanda 94, an award-winning play that questions the role of France's government in the genocide, will not be staged at Kigali's French cultural center this week as planned. The French embassy had requested that the scenes dealing with France be cut as a condition of using the cultural center's facilities.

Artist Brian Lee Hill remembers his reaction to Rwanda.

Rwanda's first public library is being built.

Posted by NYCO at 05:26 AM | Comments (0)

April 10, 2004

Day 5

Ten years ago today: The Sunday New York Times ran a front-page story on Rwanda, referring to "thousands" dead. It quoted Claude Dusaidi, a representative of RPF, as warning that the U.S., France and Belgium should not remain in the country after the evacuations of foreign nationals were completed.

On this day, Belgian commandos arrived in Kigali and conducted Operation Silver Back to rescue Belgian citizens and other expatriates.

UNAMIR Gen. Romeo Dallaire requested 5,000 more UN troops to help stop the killing.

In Cyangugu prefecture in southern Rwanda on this Sunday, Monsignor Thaddée Ntihinyurwa preached against the killing of civilians.

Hutu who tried to protect Tutsi were called ibyitso (traitors).

Laurent Semanza, mayor of Bicumbi in central Rwanda, was said to have made a radio broadcast on this day asking for soldiers and weapons to be sent to a nearby area to exterminate Tutsi. A witness said:

[He said] work in Bicumbi was finished and all he had to do was clean up the dirt.

A Tutsi woman, "VF," in Semanza's district testified that on this day she fled to a nearby school and hid in a classroom that was attacked by gunmen.

After some time, the attackers said there was no need to continue shooting because those who remained in the classrooms were only women and children and that they would leave the Interahamwe (militia) to kill them using machetes and hoes. VF said survivors were evicted from the classrooms and asked to raise their hands by soldiers of the presidential guard, who led them to the local militia... The witness said that the refugees were then sprayed with petrol and set alight while others were beaten with clubs. She added that many including herself and her parents were injured but some survived with injuries.

Bill Clinton held a brief press conference on the South Portico of the White House where he was asked questions about Bosnia. He added, near the end of the conference:

As you all know, we've been very concerned about the safety of Americans in
Rwanda. As far as we know now, the last of the convoys containing all Americans who wish to leave has either passed into Burundi or is about to pass into Burundi. And I just want to say a special word of thanks and gratitude on behalf of our entire nation to Ambassador Rawson, for the remarkable way in which he has handled himself and in which he went about guaranteeing the security and safety of American citizens during this very difficult situation.

No further questions about Rwanda were asked.

This week:

Christians consider their role during the genocide and its aftermath.

The French hit back at Rwanda over Paul Kagame's accusation of complicity in genocide.

A Belgian exhibition claims the U.S. perpetrated the world's worst genocide (on Native Americans).

South African president Thabo Mbeki apologized to Rwanda for failing to provide assistance during the genocide.

Former UN ambassador Richard Holbrooke says "never again."

Fondation Hirondelle has ongoing daily coverage of the proceedings of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.

Posted by NYCO at 07:58 AM | Comments (0)

April 09, 2004

Day 4

Ten years ago today: 500 French paratroopers arrived in Kigali to evacuate Westerners. 350 U.S. marines were on standby in Bujumbura, Burundi.

Bishop Aaron Ruhumuliza, head of the Free Methodist Church in Gikondo near Kigali, allowed the militia to massacre people in his own church on this day. The aftermath of this massacre was observed by UNAMIR's Maj. Brent Beardsley, who saw 165 bodies at the church slashed with machetes, and realized they were all Tutsi.

Jean-Philippe Ceppi, in a report published in the French newspaper Liberation, also saw what happened at Gikondo church. He was the first to use the word "genocide":

This is genocide of the Tutsi, and given its speed, it will soon be over.

The Kinyarwardan word for "genocide" is itsembabwoko.

Newly installed Rwandan Minister of Finance Emmanuel Ndindabahizi on this day made a speech to a crowd in Kibuye prefecture and exhorted them to kill a Tutsi teacher named Tatiane Nyiramaritetie who was there listening. The next day, the local Interahamwe squad found her hiding near her house and did as they were instructed.

Ntare Shangabo's family was killed on this day. 20-year-old Perpetue was captured and raped.

I was taken to the Nyabarongo River by a group of Interahamwe. When I got there, one Interahamwe said to me that he knew the best method to check that Tutsi women were like Hutu women... On the third day, one Interahamwe saw that I was not able to walk anymore. He told me that I had already died and could go. I tried to leave, but I could barely walk.

On this day, Kofi Annan, then head of peacekeeping operations at the UN, sent a cable to head of UNAMIR Gen. Romeo Dallaire in Rwanda stating:

...Cooperate with both the French and Belgian commanders to facilitate the evacuation of their nationals, and other foreign nationals requesting evacuation. You may exchange liaison officers for this purpose. You should make every effort not to compromise your impartiality or to act beyond your mandate but may exercise your discretion to do should this be essential for the evacuation of foreign nationals. This should not, repeat not, extend to participating in possible combat, except in self-defence.

This week:

Kofi Annan urged action to stop what aid workers call slow-motion ethnic cleansing by Arabs against black Muslims in the Darfur region of Sudan.

France's representative to Rwanda's national memorial service returned home early after Rwandan president Paul Kagame publicly accused France of training the perpetrators of genocide.

Ordinary Rwandans are beginning to speak out at gacaca courts.

Posted by NYCO at 07:06 AM | Comments (5)

April 08, 2004

Day 3

Ten years ago today: In Kigali, Hutu hardliners and other sympathizers of the Hutu Power movement installed themselves as Rwanda's interim government, as the RPF (Tutsi rebels) launch an offensive.

Violence toward Tutsis and others spread into the rest of the country on a large scale, egged on in part by the radio personalities of Radio Télévision Libre de Milles Collines (RTLM), a "private" station actually supported by Hutu hardliners. On this day, a popular announcer warned against allowing "hostile" Tutsi to gather in churches.

A radio warning about a church in the Nyamirambo suburb of Kigali resulted in the killings of many Tutsi there later in the day.

Listen to a bit of RTLM (in Kinyarwanda).

In rural Gikorongo prefecture, the Tutsi and Hutu people of Musebeya commune resisted violence, led by their burgomaster, who went around trying to persuade people to stay at home and out of trouble:

"There was the burgomaster whose name was Higiro Viateur. When people were killing others, he prevented them from killing, saying: "don't kill." He held meetings in the sectors to prevent attacks. I know this because the people who were hiding me told me so."

Bill Clinton mentions Rwanda in a press briefing:

"I mention it only because there are a sizable number of Americans there and it is a very tense situation."

The death toll is estimated to have reached 16,000 by today.

This week: Evarista Ahimana finds it hard to say he's sorry.

Photos of yesterday's national memorial ceremony in Rwanda.

Preservation efforts at a massacre site at Murambi.

Audio cassettes of RTLM broadcasts, to be used as evidence in ongoing genocide trials, were destroyed in a fire.

Political scientist Christian Davenport of the University of Maryland says it wasn't genocide.

Posted by NYCO at 07:39 AM | Comments (2)

April 07, 2004

Day 2

Ten years ago today: Agathe Uwilingiyimana, the prime minister of Rwanda, a moderate Hutu, and de facto leader of Rwanda following the death of President Habyarimana, was not adequately protected by UN forces at her home. Before she had a chance to go on the radio to appeal for calm across the nation, she and her husband were shot to death near her home at around 10 a.m. Her children were saved.

Ten Belgian peacekeepers with UNAMIR (the UN mission in Rwanda) were deliberately killed by the Rwandan army, part of a plan to keep the UN out of Rwanda, as detailed by a Hutu informant three months earlier. Major Brent Beardsley of UNAMIR describes what happened.

Interahamwe and Rwandan army forces went house to house in Kigali, armed with lists of names, killing Tutsi and moderate Hutu politicians and their sympathizers.

Seven-year-old Janine Umuhoza came home early from school to find her house in Kigali had been burned down and her father killed.

Human Rights Watch reports:

A witness in the section [of Kigali] known as Remera related the progress of the killers in her neighborhood in telephone conversations every half hour of the first night of the genocide. She told a Human Rights Watch researcher in the United States how a group of soldiers were shooting people in houses on the street below her home. Then she recounted how they were moving up her street, from one house to the next. With the sound of gunfire in the background, she described how three neighbors from the house next door were being executed at the corner of the street. When the soldiers banged on her own door, she hung up the phone.

Most of the killing on this day was confined to the Kigali area. Thousands (perhaps as many as 8,000) were killed. Tutsis in Gikorongo prefecture, near Burundi, were told on this day to gather at a school "for their own protection."

A map of Rwanda.

This week: Samantha Power, Pulitzer Prize winner for her book A Problem From Hell, authored an op-ed on genocide prevention.

Bill Clinton's op-ed on Rwanda and the subsequent AIDS crisis was in today's Washington Post.

Frontline's recent report Ghosts of Rwanda contains interviews with many UN and US officials about their actions and decisions during the genocide.

Islam is on the rise in Rwanda.

The BBC has a special feature collection of articles and video about the 10th anniversary of the genocide.

Posted by NYCO at 02:53 AM | Comments (3)

April 06, 2004

Day 1

On this day ten years ago: Rwanda's president Juvenal Habyarimana's plane was shot down while on landing approach in the evening at Kigali airport. The president of Burundi was also aboard. There were no survivors.

Janvier Mbarushimana, a Tutsi who survived the slaughter, witnessed the shootdown. “I was walking with three friends that evening when we saw rockets streaking across the sky and strike a plane,” Mbarushimana said. “We never knew we were watching the death of the president.”

Human Rights Watch reports on what happened next that night.

The black box from the crash was thought to have been discovered recently in a forgotten file drawer at the UN. This might not be the case.

The Monitor (Kampala, Uganda) speculates on the enduring controversy over who was responsible for the shootdown.

After the crash, Interahamwe and other militia were patrolling the streets of Kigali by 1 a.m. and setting up roadblocks.

This week: Rwanda's national genocide museum opened yesterday in Kigali. The museum is sponsored by the Aegis Trust.

Posted by NYCO at 05:00 AM | Comments (0)

April 04, 2004

100 Days of Rwanda Project

On April 6, 1994, ten years ago this week, the small African nation of Rwanda began a journey down one of the darkest roads in human history, when the death of its president sparked the start of a virulent genocide that claimed over 800,000 lives... while the world stood by and watched.

Frontline aired an excellent program last week about the indifference shown to Rwanda by the Clinton Administration and by the United Nations, among others, and the efforts of other Westerners to try and save lives. (Alison Des Forges' Leave None to Tell the Story, Philip Gourevitch's We Wish to Inform You..., and Romeo Dallaire's recent book Shake Hands with the Devil are all also out there and are invaluable resources.) The genocide in Rwanda lasted "only" 100 days. Three months where an average of 8,000 Rwandans were killed every day. It's occurred to me that one way to attempt to begin to understand, in a small way, the un-understandable, is to at least experience 100 days of being conscious of Rwanda, of what happened there, over the same stretch of time that it took hundreds of thousands of people to die.

We talk about "blogging" as a sort of ongoing thing... but it can also be an act, a finite effort with a beginning and end. I thought of creating a blog called 100 Days of Rwanda, where I would set out to present links to stuff (historical and present-day) about this country that Americans still don't know much about, and about what happened there ten years ago. It would be a learning process for myself, at the very least.

In the next 100 days I hope to learn a lot more about Rwandans of all backgrounds and their ongoing story. I encourage people to also remember Rwanda in their blogs and .sigs this spring. Further commentary on this project is posted at my personal blog.

Posted by NYCO at 05:24 PM | Comments (4)